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|File Description||Dialog File Data||DIALINDEX/OneSearch Categories||Basic Index||Rank|
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ToxFile covers the toxicological, pharmacological, biochemical, and physiological effects of drugs and other chemicals: adverse drug reactions, chemically induced diseases, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, teratogenesis, environmental pollution, waste disposal, radiation, and food contamination.
ToxFile includes toxicology records derived from MEDLINE (Dialog Files 154/155). These are journal citations related to toxicology, also called TOXBIB (or TOXLINE Core) records from the National Library of Medicine (NLM).
ToxFile also includes citations referred to as TOXNET (or TOXLINE Special) records from the following organizations and data repositories:
ANEUPL, EMIC, EPIDEM, ETIC, FEDRIP, HAPAB, HMTC, PESTAB, PPBIB, and RISKLINE are archival subfiles (do not update). CIS, CRISP, DART, FEDRIP, NTIS, and TSCATS may update on an occasional or irregular basis. The combination of the toxicology journal citations extracted from MEDLINE and the additional data from these other sources greatly facilitates searching this subject area.
USE THE (L) OPERATOR
to link descriptors and subheadings:S SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION(L)IM
USE EXPLODE (!)
to search narrower descriptors in the MeSH vocabulary:SELECT ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY!
USE THE ONLINE THESAURUS
to check and select MeSH thesaurus terms for TOXBIB records:E (PLASMIN)
USE FREE-TEXT SEARCHING, not MESH
to search TOXNET records:SELECT GREENHOUSE GASES
USE MAP RN
to take CAS® Registry Numbers to another file
e.g., /HUMAN to create a set of human subjects
ToxFile includes toxicology-related material extracted from MEDLINE as well as journal articles, monographs, technical reports, theses, letters, meeting abstracts, research projects from NLM-affiliated organizations.
|Dates Covered:||1964 to the present|
|File Size:||More than 3,000,000 records as of April 2010|
|Update Frequency:||Daily for Toxbib data|
|CASREGNO||CAS(R) Registry Numbers-Chemical and Medical Files|
|PHARMR||Pharmacology + RINGDOC-Files|
|RNMED||CAS(R) Registry Numbers - Medical Files|
|TOXSEARC||Toxfile, IPA, Biosis toxicology|
TOXFILE is produced by Dialog based on material received from the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Questions concerning file content should be directed to:
2250 Perimeter Park Drive, Suite 300
Morrisville, NC 27560
For Dialog's Electronic Redistribution and Archive Policy, enter HELP ERA online. The following terms and conditions also apply.
NLM represents that the data provided were formulated with a reasonable standard of care. Except for this representation, NLM makes no representation or warranties, expressed or implied. This includes, but is not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the NLM databases, and NLM specifically disclaims any such warranties and representations.
The duplication, resale, or redistribution of data obtained under Dialog’s Agreement with the NLM must conform to fair use guidelines and U.S. and international copyright law.
Unless otherwise prohibited, organizations or institutions may download small amounts of NLM-produced citations for redistribution. For ToxFile, this is about 1,000 per month or 12,000 records for each year of coverage. Since NLM makes corrections and enhancements to and performs maintenance on these records at least annually, users should plan to replace or correct the records once a year to ensure that they are still correct and searchable as a group.
NLM databases are produced by a U.S. government agency and as such the contents are not covered by copyright domestically. They may be copyrighted outside U.S. Some NLM produced data is from copyrighted publications of the respective copyright claimants. Users of the NLM databases are solely responsible for compliance with any copyright restrictions and are referred to the publication data appearing in the bibliographic citations, as well as to the copyright notices appearing in the original publications, all of which are incorporated by reference. Users should consult legal counsel before using NLM-produced records to be certain that their plans are in compliance with appropriate laws.
All records must be identified as being derived from NLM databases.
|(c) format only 2010 Dialog. All rts. reserv.|
|AA=||4583359 NLM Doc No: 16690014|
|/TI||Safety of incremental inhaled lipopolysaccharide challenge in humans.|
|AU=||Sundy John S; Wood William A; Watt Janet L; Kline Joel N; Schwartz David|
|CS=||Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North|
|Carolina 27710, USA. email@example.com|
|JN=,CP=,PY=, SO=,SN=,JC=||Journal Name: Journal of endotoxin research (England) Pub. Year: 2006|
|12 (2) p113-9, ISSN: 0968-0519 -- Print Journal Code: 9433350|
|CN=||Contract/Grant No.: ES 11185; ES; NIEHS; ES 11375; ES; NIEHS; ES 12496;|
|ES; NIEHS; ES005605; ES; NIEHS; ES07498; ES; NIEHS; RR00059; RR; NCRR|
|NT=||Publishing Model Print|
|DT=||Document type: Journal Article|
|OA=||Main Citation Owner: NLM|
|RT=||Record type: MEDLINE; Completed|
|SF=||Subfile: Toxbib ; INDEX MEDICUS; Toxbib|
|/AB||BACKGROUND: Inhalation of environmental endotoxin is important in the|
|pathogenesis of asthma and other environmental airway diseases. Inhaled|
|airway challenge using lipopolysaccharide in humans has been performed for|
|over 20 years to assess the airway response to endotoxin. However, there|
|are no published data on the short-term safety of endotoxin inhalation|
|protocols. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the safety and tolerability of|
|incremental inhaled lipopolysaccharide challenge in humans. PATIENTS AND|
|METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data obtained from 119|
|subjects who underwent inhaled challenge with up to 41.5 mug of|
|lipopolysaccharide. We measured pulmonary function, temperature, mean|
|arterial pressure, heart rate, and systemic symptoms for 3 h after|
|challenge. RESULTS: Fever occurred in 30% of subjects and was associated|
|with a higher cumulative dose of lipopolysaccharide. Reduced mean arterial|
|pressure occurred in 21% of subjects and was dose-related. There was no|
|association between fever or decreased mean arterial pressure and airway|
|responsiveness to inhaled lipopolysaccharide. Common symptoms reported by|
|subjects included: chills (64%), malaise (56%), cough (56%), chest|
|tightness (49%), headache (43%), and myalgias (27%). None of the subjects|
|experienced delayed discharge or a serious adverse event. CONCLUSIONS:|
|Inhaled lipopolysaccharide causes dose-related systemic responses that|
|include fever, reduced blood pressure, and constitutional symptoms that are|
|not associated with the airway response to inhaled lipopolysaccharide.|
|Systemic responses to inhaled lipopolysaccharide should be expected and|
|subjects undergoing inhaled lipopolysaccharide challenge in the research|
|setting should be carefully monitored for non-pulmonary adverse events for|
|several hours after challenge.|
|/GS||Tags: Female; Male|
|/DE||Descriptors: *Lipopolysaccharides--toxicity--TO; Administration,|
|Inhalation; Adolescent; Adult; Blood Pressure--drug effects--DE; Body|
|Temperature--drug effects--DE; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug;|
|Escherichia coli--chemistry--CH; Fever--chemically induced--CI; Fever|
|--physiopathology--PP; Heart Rate--drug effects--DE; Humans;|
|Lipopolysaccharides--administration and dosage--AD; Middle Aged; Research|
|Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.;|
|Respiratory Function Tests; Retrospective Studies|
|/ID, RN=||CAS Registry No.: 0 (Lipopolysaccharides)|
|UP=||Record Date Created: 20060512|
|RC=||Record Date Completed: 20060531|
|(c) format only 2010 Dialog. All rts. reserv.|
|AA=||694830 NLM Doc No: CRISP/2004/DK054507-07 Sec. Source ID:|
|/TI||Cell Response To Iron Starvation & Intoxication in Yeast|
|CSfirstname.lastname@example.org, LIVER DISEASES SECTION, NIDDK, BETHESDA, MD|
|SO=||Source: Crisp Data Base National Institutes of Health|
|ZP=||Zip Code: 20892|
|PY=||Pub. Year: 2004|
|SP=||Sponsoring Agency: U.S. DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES; PUBLIC HEALTH|
|SERVICE; NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DIABETES AND|
|DIGESTIVE AND KIDNEY DISEASES|
|AW=||Award Type: Intramural Project|
|DT=||Document type: Research|
|RT=||Record type: Completed|
|/AB||Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually every organism, yet it can|
|also be a potent cellular toxin. Dysregulated iron metabolism and iron|
|overload are features of a growing number of human diseases. Some genes|
|involved in cellular iron uptake and export have been identified, yet very|
|little is known about inter- and intracellular iron transport,|
|intracellular iron utilization, and the regulation of these processes. A|
|combination of genetic, biochemical, and cell biological approaches is|
|needed to understand iron metabolism and the role of iron in human disease.|
|These approaches can be combined in the simple eukaryote, Saccharomyces|
|cerevisiae. Studies of metal metabolism in budding yeast have yielded|
|important insights into iron, copper, and zinc metabolism in both humans|
|and pathogenic microorganisms. Genetic studies of iron metabolism in a|
|simple eukaryote will allow us to discover new genes involved in iron|
|homeostasis as well as to determine the cellular response to iron overload|
|and iron deprivation. We have used cDNA microarrays representing the entire|
|yeast genome to identify genes that are regulated according to the|
|availability of iron and the activity of Aft1p, the major iron-dependent|
|transcription factor. Using available genome and protein databases, we have|
|grouped these newly identified genes into families and have begun their|
|functional evaluation. We have identified and genetically characterized a|
|novel system of eukaryotic iron uptake. Four homologous genes regulated as|
|part of the Aft1-regulon (ARN1-4) were found to facilitate the transport of|
|siderophores. We have determined that, in the absence of transport|
|substrate, Arn1p is sorted directly from the Golgi to the late|
|endosome/pre-vacuolar compartment and does not cycle to the plasma|
|Very little is known about heme transport in eukaryotes and no|
|fungal heme transporters have been identified. We have identified a gene|
|from C. albicans that, when overexpressed in S. cerevisiae, facilitates the|
|uptake of heme. This gene, tentatively termed HUF1 for heme utilization|
|factor 1, is part of a fungal gene family with three homologues in C.|
|albicans and, surprisingly, three orthologues in S. cerevisiae. These genes|
|have ten predicted transmembrane domains and may function as transporters.|
|Members of this family of genes serve an essential function in yeast, as|
|deletion of two members of this family is lethal in S. cerevisiae. We have|
|constructed a double deletion strain in S. cerevisiae that expresses Huf1p|
|from a regulatable promoter, and we are phenotypically characterizing this|
|strain. Localization studies with an epitope-tagged Huf1p and a screen for|
|genes that rescue the growth defects of the double deletion mutant are|
|/ID||Identifiers: glutamate ammonia ligase; intracellular transport;|
|Saccharomyces cerevisiae; genetic regulation; transcription factor; fungal|
|genetics; gene deletion mutation; iron poisoning; iron metabolism;|
|siderophore; protein localization; genetic screening; protein protein|
|interaction; microarray technology|
|UP=||Record Date Created: 200412|
|None||None||All Basic Index Fields||Word||S COSMIC(W)RADIATION|
|/DE||DE||Descriptor2||Phrase||S LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER/DE|
|/GS||GS||Check Tag3||Phrase||S COMPARATIVE STUDY/GS|
|/ID||ID||Identifier4,5||Phrase||S POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS/ID|
S WARKANY JOSEPH/NM
1 Abstracts are present for more than 70% of records.
2 Also /DE*, /DF, /DF*. Most OLDMEDLINE records (with publication dates of 1951-1965) have at least one MeSH term.
3 As of 2006, the only remaining Check Tags are: Male and Female.
4 Also /IF. CAS Registry Number, Enzyme Commission Number, Gene Symbol, Enzyme Name, and Chemical Name display in /ID.
5 Chemical Names and Enzyme Names are searchable in /ID. CAS Registry Numbers and Enzyme Commission Numbers are searchable in RN= and EC=, respectively, and the display includes the chemical and enzyme names in parentheses.
|AA=||AA||NLM Document Number||Phrase||S AA=16690014|
|None||AN||DIALOG Accession Number|
|AU=||AU||Author||Phrase||S AU=SUNDY JOHN?|
|AW=||AW||Award Type6||Phrase||S AW=INTRAMURAL PROJECT|
|AX=||AX||Secondary Source ID6||Phrase||S AX="CRISP/2004/DK054507-07"|
|BN=||BN||International Standard Book Number (ISBN)6||Phrase||S BN=0-08-042975-0|
S CC="TSCA SECT. FYI REC 12/31/91"
|CN=||CN||Contract Number||Phrase||S CN=ES 11185|
|CP=||CP||Country of Publication||Phrase||S CP=ENGLAND|
|S CS=(MEDICINE(S) DUKE(W)UNIVER?)|
S CS=LIVER DISEASES?
|DC=||None||MeSH Descriptor Code8||Phrase||S DC=H1.671.579.404.467.?|
|DT=||DT||Document Type||Phrase||S DT=JOURNAL ARTICLE|
|EC=||EC||Enzyme Commission Number4,5||Phrase||S EC=22.214.171.124|
|FD=||FD||Project Final Date6||Phrase||S FD=20060831|
|JC=||JC||NLM Journal Code||Phrase||S JC=9433350|
|JN=||JN||Journal Name9||Phrase||S JN=JOURNAL OF ENDOTOXIN?|
|MI=||MI||Mission Name10||Phrase||S MI=FLIGHT EXPERIMENT|
|NT=||NT||Notes/Comments11||Word||S NT=(COMMENT AND LANCET)|
|OA=||OA||Main Citation Owner10||Phrase||S OA=NLM|
|OB=||OB||Other Citation Owner10||Phrase||S OB=NASA|
|OC=||OC||Abstract Source10||Phrase||S OC=KIE|
|PY=||PY||Publication Year||Phrase||S PY=2006|
|RC=||RC||Record Completed Date||Phrase||S RC=20060531|
|None||RF||Number of References|
|RI=||RI||Record Identifier10||Phrase||S RI=00027236|
|RN=||RN||CAS(r) Registry Number 4,5||Phrase||S RN=25656-90-0|
|RT=||RT||Record Type||Phrase||S RT=COMPLETED|
|SD=||SD||Project Start Date6||Phrase||S SD=20020401|
|SN=||SN||International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)||Phrase||S SN=0968-0519|
|SO=||SO||Source Information12||Word||S SO=(JOURNAL(1W)ENDOTOXIN AND 2)|
|SP=||SP||Sponsoring Agency6||Phrase||S SP=PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE?|
|SQ=||SQ||Molecular Sequence Databank Number10,13||Word
S SQ=GENBANK AA273731?
|ST=||ST||City or State6||Phrase||S ST=ILLINOIS|
|UP=||UP||Record Date Created||Phrase||S UP=200412|
|ZP=||ZP||Zip Code6||Phrase||S ZP=20892|
6 Present in TOXNET records only.
7 Beginning in 1988.
8 You can EXPLODE either the Descriptor Code followed by a question mark (S DC=A4.411.?) or the Descriptor Name followed by an exclamation point (e.g., S LUNG!) . Descriptor Codes do not display in records.
9 Journal Names are searchable as the full name and the abbreviated name, displayable as the full name.
10 Present in TOXBIB records only.
11 Beginning in 1989.
12 Search and display for TOXBIB records include Journal Name, Volume, Issue, Pagination, and Publication Year. For TOXNET records, all elements of this field should be searched separately; display depends on document type and subfile.
13 Beginning in 1996.
|/ABS||Abstract Present||S S1/ABS|
|/ENG||English-Language Records14||S SF=CIS/ENG|
|/MAJ||Major Descriptor||S LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES/MAJ|
|/NOABS||No Abstract Present||S DT=RESEARCH/NOABS|
|/NONENG||Non-English Language Records||S S3/NONENG|
|/YYYY||Publication Year||S S4/2006|
14 Searches LIMITed to /ENG will also include records with LA=UNSPECIFIED.
|AU, CS, JN, PY, TI||SORT S3/ALL/AU |
|All phrase- and numeric-indexed fields in the Additional Indexes can be ranked. Other RANK codes include: DE, ID, SQ||RANK AU S3|
|DE, RN||MAP RN TEMP S2|
|Output may be specified using the display codes indicated in the Search Options tables.||TYPE S2/AU,TI,SO/1-5
|1||--||DIALOG Accession Number|
|2||--||Full Record except Abstract|
|4||--||Full Record with Tagged Fields|
|6||Short||Title and Publication Year|
|7||Long||Bibliographic Citation and Abstract|
|8||Free||Title, Indexing, and Publication Year|
|K||--||KWIC (Key Word In Context) displays a window of text; may be used alone or with other formats|
|DIALOG Accession Number||TYPE 03905436/9
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