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156
ToxFile

Last Loaded on Web: Tuesday, October 01, 2013

Last Update To Bluesheet: April 14, 2010

Bluesheet Contents     PDF version

File Description Dialog File Data DIALINDEX/OneSearch Categories Basic Index Rank
Subject Coverage Document Types Indexed Contact Additional Indexes Map
Sources Geographic Coverage Terms and Conditions Limit Predefined Format Options
Tips Special Features Sample Record Sort Rates


File Description [top]

ToxFile covers the toxicological, pharmacological, biochemical, and physiological effects of drugs and other chemicals: adverse drug reactions, chemically induced diseases, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, teratogenesis, environmental pollution, waste disposal, radiation, and food contamination.

ToxFile includes toxicology records derived from MEDLINE (Dialog Files 154/155). These are journal citations related to toxicology, also called TOXBIB (or TOXLINE Core) records from the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

ToxFile also includes citations referred to as TOXNET (or TOXLINE Special) records from the following organizations and data repositories:

  • Aneuploidy File (ANEUPL)
  • International Labor Office (CIS)
  • Toxicology Research Projects (CRISP)
  • Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology (DART)
  • Environmental Mutagen Information Center File (EMIC)
  • Epidemiology Information System (EPIDEM)
  • Environmental Teratology Information Center File (ETICBACK)
  • Federal Research in Progress (FEDRIP)
  • Health Aspects of Pesticides Abstract Bulletin (HAPAB)
  • Toxicological Aspects of Environmental Health (HEEP)
  • Hazardous Materials Technical Center File (HMTC)
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
  • Toxicology Document and Data Repository (NTIS)
  • Pesticides Abstracts (PESTAB)
  • Poisonous Plants Bibliography (PPBIB)
  • Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate (RISKLINE)
  • Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions (TSCATS)

ANEUPL, EMIC, EPIDEM, ETIC, FEDRIP, HAPAB, HMTC, PESTAB, PPBIB, and RISKLINE are archival subfiles (do not update). CIS, CRISP, DART, FEDRIP, NTIS, and TSCATS may update on an occasional or irregular basis. The combination of the toxicology journal citations extracted from MEDLINE and the additional data from these other sources greatly facilitates searching this subject area.



Tips [top]

USE THE (L) OPERATOR

to link descriptors and subheadings:

     S SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION(L)IM

USE EXPLODE (!)

to search narrower descriptors in the MeSH vocabulary:

     SELECT ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY!

USE THE ONLINE THESAURUS

to check and select MeSH thesaurus terms for TOXBIB records:

     E (PLASMIN)

USE FREE-TEXT SEARCHING, not MESH

to search TOXNET records:

     SELECT GREENHOUSE GASES

USE MAP RN

to take CAS® Registry Numbers to another file

USE LIMITS

e.g., /HUMAN to create a set of human subjects



Subject Coverage [top]

  • Adverse Drug Reactions
  • Air Pollution
  • Animal Venom
  • Antidotes
  • Carcinogenesis via Chemicals
  • Chemically Induced Diseases
  • Drug Evaluation
  • Environmental Pollution
  • Food Contamination
  • Mutagenesis
  • Occupation
  • Pesticides
  • Radiation
  • Teratogene
  • Toxicology
  • Waste Disposal


Sources [top]

ToxFile includes toxicology-related material extracted from MEDLINE as well as journal articles, monographs, technical reports, theses, letters, meeting abstracts, research projects from NLM-affiliated organizations.



Dialog File Data [top]

Dates Covered: 1964 to the present
File Size: More than 3,000,000 records as of April 2010
Update Frequency: Daily for Toxbib data


Document Types Indexed [top]

  • Reports
  • Book Chapters
  • Books and Monographs
  • Conferences, Symposia, Meetings
  • Journal Articles
  • Theses and Dissertations
  • Patents
  • Research Projects


Geographic Coverage [top]

  • International


Geographic Restrictions [top]

  • None


Special Features [top]


DialIndex/OneSearch Categories [top]

ACRONYM CATEGORY NAME
BIOCHEM Biochemistry
CASREGNO CAS(R) Registry Numbers-Chemical and Medical Files
HEALTH Health
MEDICINE Medicine
NUTRIT Nutrition
PHARM Pharmacology
PHARMR Pharmacology + RINGDOC-Files
RNMED CAS(R) Registry Numbers - Medical Files
SAFETY Safety
TOXICOL Toxicology
TOXSEARC Toxfile, IPA, Biosis toxicology
WASTE Waste Management


Contact [top]

TOXFILE is produced by Dialog based on material received from the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Questions concerning file content should be directed to:

Dialog LLC
2250 Perimeter Park Drive, Suite 300

Morrisville, NC 27560

Telephone: 1-919-804-6400
800 Line: 1-800-3DIALOG
Fax: 1-919-804-6410
E-Mail: customer@dialog.com


Terms and Conditions [top]

ToxFile is the mark used by Dialog for a collection of toxicology-related material provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For Dialog's Electronic Redistribution and Archive Policy, enter HELP ERA online. The following terms and conditions also apply.

NLM represents that the data provided were formulated with a reasonable standard of care. Except for this representation, NLM makes no representation or warranties, expressed or implied. This includes, but is not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the NLM databases, and NLM specifically disclaims any such warranties and representations.

The duplication, resale, or redistribution of data obtained under Dialog’s Agreement with the NLM must conform to fair use guidelines and U.S. and international copyright law.

Unless otherwise prohibited, organizations or institutions may download small amounts of NLM-produced citations for redistribution. For ToxFile, this is about 1,000 per month or 12,000 records for each year of coverage. Since NLM makes corrections and enhancements to and performs maintenance on these records at least annually, users should plan to replace or correct the records once a year to ensure that they are still correct and searchable as a group.

NLM databases are produced by a U.S. government agency and as such the contents are not covered by copyright domestically. They may be copyrighted outside U.S. Some NLM produced data is from copyrighted publications of the respective copyright claimants. Users of the NLM databases are solely responsible for compliance with any copyright restrictions and are referred to the publication data appearing in the bibliographic citations, as well as to the copyright notices appearing in the original publications, all of which are incorporated by reference. Users should consult legal counsel before using NLM-produced records to be certain that their plans are in compliance with appropriate laws.

All records must be identified as being derived from NLM databases.


Dialog Standard Terms & Conditions apply.


SAMPLE TOXBIB RECORD [top]

     
    DIALOG(R)File 156:ToxFile 
    (c) format only 2010 Dialog. All rts. reserv. 
     
  AA=  4583359   NLM Doc No: 16690014 
  /TI    Safety of incremental inhaled lipopolysaccharide challenge in humans. 
  AU=    Sundy  John S; Wood William A; Watt Janet L; Kline Joel N; Schwartz David 
   
  CS=    Department  of  Medicine,  Duke  University Medical Center, Durham, North 
    Carolina 27710, USA. sundy001@mc.duke.edu 
  JN=,CP=,PY=, SO=,SN=,JC=    Journal Name: Journal of endotoxin research (England)    Pub. Year:  2006 
      12  (2)  p113-9,  ISSN: 0968-0519 -- Print  Journal Code: 9433350 
  CN=    Contract/Grant  No.:  ES 11185; ES; NIEHS; ES 11375; ES; NIEHS; ES 12496; 
    ES; NIEHS; ES005605; ES; NIEHS; ES07498; ES; NIEHS; RR00059; RR; NCRR 
  NT=    Publishing Model Print 
  DT=    Document type: Journal Article 
  LA=    Languages: ENGLISH 
  OA=    Main Citation Owner: NLM 
  RT=    Record type: MEDLINE;  Completed 
  SF=    Subfile:  Toxbib   ; INDEX MEDICUS;  Toxbib 
  /AB    BACKGROUND:  Inhalation  of  environmental  endotoxin is important in the 
    pathogenesis  of  asthma  and  other environmental airway diseases. Inhaled 
    airway  challenge using lipopolysaccharide in humans has been performed for 
    over  20  years  to assess the airway response to endotoxin. However, there 
    are  no  published  data  on  the short-term safety of endotoxin inhalation 
    protocols.  OBJECTIVE:  To  characterize  the  safety  and  tolerability of 
    incremental  inhaled  lipopolysaccharide  challenge in humans. PATIENTS AND 
    METHODS:  We  performed  a retrospective analysis of data obtained from 119 
    subjects   who   underwent  inhaled  challenge  with  up  to  41.5  mug  of 
    lipopolysaccharide.  We  measured  pulmonary  function,  temperature,  mean 
    arterial  pressure,  heart  rate,  and  systemic  symptoms  for  3  h after 
    challenge.  RESULTS:  Fever  occurred in 30% of subjects and was associated 
    with  a higher cumulative dose of lipopolysaccharide. Reduced mean arterial 
    pressure  occurred  in  21%  of subjects and was dose-related. There was no 
    association  between  fever  or decreased mean arterial pressure and airway 
    responsiveness  to  inhaled lipopolysaccharide. Common symptoms reported by 
    subjects   included:  chills  (64%),  malaise  (56%),  cough  (56%),  chest 
    tightness  (49%),  headache (43%), and myalgias (27%). None of the subjects 
    experienced  delayed  discharge  or  a  serious adverse event. CONCLUSIONS: 
    Inhaled  lipopolysaccharide  causes  dose-related  systemic  responses that 
    include fever, reduced blood pressure, and constitutional symptoms that are 
    not  associated  with  the  airway  response to inhaled lipopolysaccharide. 
    Systemic  responses  to  inhaled  lipopolysaccharide should be expected and 
    subjects  undergoing  inhaled  lipopolysaccharide challenge in the research 
    setting  should be carefully monitored for non-pulmonary adverse events for 
    several hours after challenge. 
  /GS    Tags: Female; Male 
  /DE    Descriptors:      *Lipopolysaccharides--toxicity--TO;     Administration, 
    Inhalation;  Adolescent;  Adult;  Blood  Pressure--drug  effects--DE;  Body 
    Temperature--drug    effects--DE;    Dose-Response    Relationship,   Drug; 
    Escherichia   coli--chemistry--CH;  Fever--chemically  induced--CI;   Fever 
    --physiopathology--PP;     Heart     Rate--drug     effects--DE;    Humans; 
    Lipopolysaccharides--administration  and  dosage--AD; Middle Aged; Research 
    Support,  N.I.H.,  Extramural;  Research  Support,  U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; 
    Respiratory Function Tests; Retrospective Studies 
  /ID, RN=    CAS Registry No.: 0   (Lipopolysaccharides) 
  UP=    Record Date Created: 20060512 
  RC=    Record Date Completed: 20060531 
     


SAMPLE TOXNET RECORD [top]

     
    DIALOG(R)File 156:ToxFile 
    (c) format only 2010 Dialog. All rts. reserv. 
     
  AA=  694830   NLM    Doc    No:    CRISP/2004/DK054507-07   Sec.    Source   ID: 
  AX=  CRISP/2004/DK054507-07 
  /TI    Cell Response To Iron Starvation & Intoxication in Yeast 
  AU=    PHILPOTT CC 
  CS=    carolina@intra.niddk.nih.gov, LIVER DISEASES SECTION, NIDDK, BETHESDA, MD 
    20892 
  SO=    Source: Crisp Data Base National Institutes of Health 
  ZP=    Zip Code: 20892 
  PY=    Pub. Year:  2004 
  SP=    Sponsoring Agency: U.S. DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES; PUBLIC HEALTH 
    SERVICE;  NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DIABETES AND 
    DIGESTIVE AND KIDNEY DISEASES 
  AW=    Award Type: Intramural Project 
  DT=    Document type: Research 
  LA=    Languages: ENGLISH 
  RT=    Record type: Completed 
  SF=    Subfile:  CRISP 
  /AB    Iron  is  an  essential nutrient for virtually every organism, yet it can 
    also  be  a  potent  cellular  toxin. Dysregulated iron metabolism and iron 
    overload  are  features  of  a growing number of human diseases. Some genes 
    involved  in cellular iron uptake and export have been identified, yet very 
    little   is   known   about   inter-   and  intracellular  iron  transport, 
    intracellular  iron  utilization,  and the regulation of these processes. A 
    combination  of  genetic,  biochemical,  and  cell biological approaches is 
    needed to understand iron metabolism and the role of iron in human disease. 
    These  approaches  can  be  combined in the simple eukaryote, Saccharomyces 
    cerevisiae.  Studies  of  metal  metabolism  in  budding yeast have yielded 
    important  insights  into  iron, copper, and zinc metabolism in both humans 
    and  pathogenic  microorganisms.  Genetic  studies  of iron metabolism in a 
    simple  eukaryote  will  allow  us  to  discover new genes involved in iron 
    homeostasis  as well as to determine the cellular response to iron overload 
    and iron deprivation. We have used cDNA microarrays representing the entire 
    yeast  genome  to  identify  genes  that  are  regulated  according  to the 
    availability  of  iron  and the activity of Aft1p, the major iron-dependent 
    transcription factor. Using available genome and protein databases, we have 
    grouped  these  newly  identified  genes into families and have begun their 
    functional  evaluation.  We have identified and genetically characterized a 
    novel  system of eukaryotic iron uptake. Four homologous genes regulated as 
    part of the Aft1-regulon (ARN1-4) were found to facilitate the transport of 
    siderophores.  We  have  determined  that,  in  the  absence  of  transport 
    substrate,   Arn1p   is   sorted  directly  from  the  Golgi  to  the  late 
    endosome/pre-vacuolar   compartment  and  does  not  cycle  to  the  plasma 
    membrane. 
                                       (...) 
    Very  little  is  known  about heme transport in eukaryotes and no 
    fungal  heme  transporters  have been identified. We have identified a gene 
    from C. albicans that, when overexpressed in S. cerevisiae, facilitates the 
    uptake  of  heme.  This  gene, tentatively termed HUF1 for heme utilization 
    factor  1,  is  part  of  a  fungal gene family with three homologues in C. 
    albicans and, surprisingly, three orthologues in S. cerevisiae. These genes 
    have  ten predicted transmembrane domains and may function as transporters. 
    Members  of  this  family of genes serve an essential function in yeast, as 
    deletion  of two members of this family is lethal in S. cerevisiae. We have 
    constructed  a double deletion strain in S. cerevisiae that expresses Huf1p 
    from  a regulatable promoter, and we are phenotypically characterizing this 
    strain.  Localization studies with an epitope-tagged Huf1p and a screen for 
    genes  that  rescue  the  growth  defects of the double deletion mutant are 
    underway. 
  /ID    Identifiers:   glutamate   ammonia   ligase;   intracellular   transport; 
    Saccharomyces  cerevisiae; genetic regulation; transcription factor; fungal 
    genetics;   gene   deletion  mutation;  iron  poisoning;  iron  metabolism; 
    siderophore;  protein  localization;  genetic  screening;  protein  protein 
    interaction; microarray technology 
  UP=    Record Date Created: 200412 


BASIC INDEX [top]

SEARCH
SUFFIX
DISPLAY
CODE
FIELD NAME
INDEXING
SELECT EXAMPLES
None None All Basic Index Fields Word S COSMIC(W)RADIATION
/AB AB Abstract1 Word S ENVIRONMENTAL(W)ENDOTOXIN?/AB
/DE DE Descriptor2 Phrase S LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER/DE
/GS GS Check Tag3 Phrase S COMPARATIVE STUDY/GS
/ID ID Identifier4,5 Phrase S POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS/ID
/NM NM Named Person Word
& Phrase
S WARKANY/NM
S WARKANY JOSEPH/NM
/TI TI Title Word S SAFETY(1W)LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE/TI

1 Abstracts are present for more than 70% of records.

2 Also /DE*, /DF, /DF*. Most OLDMEDLINE records (with publication dates of 1951-1965) have at least one MeSH term.

3 As of 2006, the only remaining Check Tags are: Male and Female.

4 Also /IF. CAS Registry Number, Enzyme Commission Number, Gene Symbol, Enzyme Name, and Chemical Name display in /ID.

5 Chemical Names and Enzyme Names are searchable in /ID. CAS Registry Numbers and Enzyme Commission Numbers are searchable in RN= and EC=, respectively, and the display includes the chemical and enzyme names in parentheses.


ADDITIONAL INDEXES [top]

SEARCH
PREFIX
DISPLAY
CODE
FIELD NAME
INDEXING
SELECT EXAMPLES
AA= AA NLM Document Number Phrase S AA=16690014
None AN DIALOG Accession Number
AU= AU Author Phrase S AU=SUNDY JOHN?
AW= AW Award Type6 Phrase S AW=INTRAMURAL PROJECT
AX= AX Secondary Source ID6 Phrase S AX="CRISP/2004/DK054507-07"
BN= BN International Standard Book Number (ISBN)6 Phrase S BN=0-08-042975-0
CC= CC Classification6 Word
& Phrase
S CC=TSCA
S CC="TSCA SECT. FYI REC 12/31/91"
CD= CD Coden6 Phrase S CD=AACHA
CN= CN Contract Number Phrase S CN=ES 11185
CP= CP Country of Publication Phrase S CP=ENGLAND
CS= CS Corporate Source7 Word
& Phrase
S CS=(MEDICINE(S) DUKE(W)UNIVER?)
S CS=LIVER DISEASES?
DC= None MeSH Descriptor Code8 Phrase S DC=H1.671.579.404.467.?
DT= DT Document Type Phrase S DT=JOURNAL ARTICLE
EC= EC Enzyme Commission Number4,5 Phrase S EC=2.5.1.18
FD= FD Project Final Date6 Phrase S FD=20060831
JC= JC NLM Journal Code Phrase S JC=9433350
JN= JN Journal Name9 Phrase S JN=JOURNAL OF ENDOTOXIN?
LA= LA Language Phrase S LA=ENGLISH
MI= MI Mission Name10 Phrase S MI=FLIGHT EXPERIMENT
NT= NT Notes/Comments11 Word S NT=(COMMENT AND LANCET)
OA= OA Main Citation Owner10 Phrase S OA=NLM
OB= OB Other Citation Owner10 Phrase S OB=NASA
OC= OC Abstract Source10 Phrase S OC=KIE
None OR Order Number6
None PR Price6
PY= PY Publication Year Phrase S PY=2006
RC= RC Record Completed Date Phrase S RC=20060531
None RF Number of References
RI= RI Record Identifier10 Phrase S RI=00027236
RN= RN CAS(r) Registry Number 4,5 Phrase S RN=25656-90-0
RT= RT Record Type Phrase S RT=COMPLETED
SD= SD Project Start Date6 Phrase S SD=20020401
SF= SF Subfile Phrase S SF=TOXBIB
SN= SN International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) Phrase S SN=0968-0519
SO= SO Source Information12 Word S SO=(JOURNAL(1W)ENDOTOXIN AND 2)
SP= SP Sponsoring Agency6 Phrase S SP=PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE?
SQ= SQ Molecular Sequence Databank Number10,13 Word
& Phrase
S SQ=(GENBANK(W)AA273731)
S SQ=GENBANK AA273731?
ST= ST City or State6 Phrase S ST=ILLINOIS
UD= None Update Phrase S UD=9999
UP= UP Record Date Created Phrase S UP=200412
ZP= ZP Zip Code6 Phrase S ZP=20892

6 Present in TOXNET records only.

7 Beginning in 1988.

8 You can EXPLODE either the Descriptor Code followed by a question mark (S DC=A4.411.?) or the Descriptor Name followed by an exclamation point (e.g., S LUNG!) . Descriptor Codes do not display in records.

9 Journal Names are searchable as the full name and the abbreviated name, displayable as the full name.

10 Present in TOXBIB records only.

11 Beginning in 1989.

12 Search and display for TOXBIB records include Journal Name, Volume, Issue, Pagination, and Publication Year. For TOXNET records, all elements of this field should be searched separately; display depends on document type and subfile.

13 Beginning in 1996.


LIMIT [top]

SUFFIX FIELD NAME EXAMPLES
/ABS Abstract Present S S1/ABS
/ENG English-Language Records14 S SF=CIS/ENG
/HUMAN Human S S2/HUMAN
/MAJ Major Descriptor S LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES/MAJ
/NOABS No Abstract Present S DT=RESEARCH/NOABS
/NONENG Non-English Language Records S S3/NONENG
/YYYY Publication Year S S4/2006

14 Searches LIMITed to /ENG will also include records with LA=UNSPECIFIED.


SORT [top]

SORTABLE FIELDS EXAMPLES
AU, CS, JN, PY, TI SORT S3/ALL/AU
SORT S1/ALL/PY/D


RANK [top]

RANK FIELDS EXAMPLES
All phrase- and numeric-indexed fields in the Additional Indexes can be ranked. Other RANK codes include: DE, ID, SQ RANK AU S3
RANK DE


MAP [top]

MAP FIELDS EXAMPLES
DE, RN MAP RN TEMP S2


USER-DEFINED FORMAT OPTIONS [top]

Output may be specified using the display codes indicated in the Search Options tables. TYPE S2/AU,TI,SO/1-5
PRINT S1/AU,TI,AB/ALL


PREDEFINED FORMAT OPTIONS [top]

NO.
DIALOGWEB
FORMAT
RECORD CONTENT
1 -- DIALOG Accession Number
2 -- Full Record except Abstract
3 Medium Bibliographic Citation
4 -- Full Record with Tagged Fields
5 -- Full Record
6 Short Title and Publication Year
7 Long Bibliographic Citation and Abstract
8 Free Title, Indexing, and Publication Year
9 Full Full Record
K -- KWIC (Key Word In Context) displays a window of text; may be used alone or with other formats


DIRECT RECORD ACCESS [top]

FIELD NAME EXAMPLES
DIALOG Accession Number TYPE 03905436/9
DISPLAY 03905436/5
PRINT 03905436/4


Rates [top]

Rates For File: TOXFILE[156]
Cost per DialUnit:                 $7.50
Cost per minute:                   $1.35
Rank Elements                      $0.00
ALERT (default)                    $9.50
ALERT (Monthly)                   $21.00
ALERT (Biweekly/twice a month) *  $14.75
ALERT (Weekly)                     $9.50
ALERT (Daily)                  *   $9.50
ALERT (Calendar weekly)        *   $9.50
ALERT (Intraday)               *   $9.50
* = custom scheduled Alerts only
ALERT Number of included prints        0

Format    Types   Prints
     1    $0.00    $0.00
     2    $1.50    $1.50
     3    $1.50    $1.50
     4    $1.50    $1.50
     5    $1.50    $1.50
     6    $0.00    $0.00
     7    $1.50    $1.50
     8    $0.00    $0.00
     9    $1.50    $1.50
KWIC95    $0.22       NA
KWIC96    $0.22       NA

REDIST/COPY Multiplier Table:

      Range      Multiplier
        1-2       1.00
       3-25       1.50
     26-100       3.00
    101-200       4.00
    201-500       6.00
   501-1000       8.00
 1001 or more    10.00

ARCHIVE Multiplier Table:

      Range      Multiplier
       1-25       1.50
     26-200       3.00
    201-500       6.00
   501-1000       8.00
 1001 or more    10.00
[top]



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